The Leinster Modal

(B9NW4 on Ysearch)
 
   The Trinity DNA study included several surnames from the Province of Leinster in Ireland, some of which are linked by pedigree to the ancient chieftains of the Lagin. (from whom came the name Leinster). Most notable in the list are the O'Byrnes of Leinster but the DNA samples also include Murphys, Ryans and Kellys, also known chieftains of the Lagin. Other Leinster surnames in the database but without definite links to the ruling Lagin are McEvoy, one of the seven septs of Leix, Farrelly (Farley) and O'Neill of the Decies in Waterford and Carlow.

   There are 41 Byrne samples from Leinster in the Trinity database. Of these 25 match in DNA. The Trinity DNA test consisted of 17 markers but only 12 of these are directly comparable to results from Ysearch, the public database maintained by FamilyTree DNA.

   The large matching group of Byrnes (25) have the following 12 marker modal:

   13-24-14-11-11-14-[ ]-12-12-14-13-30

   The most interesting part of this DNA is the 14-13-30 at DYS 389i to DYS 389ii. It's the only place where the DNA varies from the AMH or R1b modal and sets this group apart from the rest.

   Of the remaining 16 Bynes from Leinster a small group appear to be R1b1c7 (4 or 5). One sample is I haplogroup (IXI1b2). The other ten are R1b but do not match the large group of 25. We appear then to be looking at the main body of O'Byrnes in this group in Leinster.

   But the Byrnes are not the only surname from Leinster who match this distinctive 12 marker modal. A group of Murphys (21) evenly distributed between Leinster and Munster have exactly the same DNA. So do 6 of 6 Ryans; 4 Kellys from Leinster; 16 McEvoys and 4 Farrellys.

   This DNA in the Trinity database is concentrated almost completely in Leinster and Munster with a majority in Leinster and only a handful of samples in Connacht and Ulster. It is very much a southern Irish DNA with the largest concentration to be found within a single surname in the O'Brynes of Leinster, chieftains of the Lagin.


Leinster Modal Results (Trinity database)

     
Surname Sample Size Distribution
     
Bradley 31 Leinster (1)
Byrne 61 Leinster (41)
Coulter 13 Ulster (1)
Donohoe} 76 Leinster (1) Munster (2)
Dunleavy 12 Munster (3)
Egan 20 Leinster (3) Munster (1) Connacht (1)
Farrelly 5 Leinster (3) Ulster (1) Connacht (1)
Geary 7 Munster (3)
Kelly 60 Leinster (4) Munster (1) Connacht (1) Ulster (1)
Kennedy 68 Munster (5) Ulster (1) unknown (1)
McCartan 13 Ulster (1)
McCarthy 70 Leinster (1) Munster (3)
McEvoy 52 Leinster (16) Munster (1) Ulster (1)
McGillicuddy 21 Munster (7) unknown (1)
McGuinness 100 Leinster (2)
McKiernan 6 Ulster (1)
Murphy 68 Leinster (7) Munster (13)
O'Hanlon 15 Leinster (1)
O'Hara 10 Connacht (1)
O'Neill 80 Leinster (2) Connacht (1) Ulster (1) unknown (1)
O'Rourke 5 Leinster (1)
O'Sullivan 70 Munster (6)
Ryan 64 Leinster (6) Munster (1) unknown (1)


Totals
       
Leinster Munster Connacht Ulster
89 46 4 8


   The following pedigree chart will illustrate how some of these surnames fit into the Leinster dynasties


Chieftains of the Lagin


Mogha airt
Airt
Alloit
Nuadat folloin
Feradaigh foghlais
Oilella glais
Fiachach fobric
Bresail bric
 |_______________________________________________________
 |                                                       |
Luighdech loichfinn                                     Connla                                 
Sedna sithbaic                                          Nuadhat
Nuadat necht                                            Carthaigh
Fergusa fairrge                                         Labradha
Rossa ruaidh                                            Luighdech
Finn fhile                                              Oilella
Conchobair abratruaidh                                  Sedna
Mogha corb                                              Iaair
Con Corp 
 |_________________________                             Fitzpatrick
 |                         |                            O'Brennan
Niadh corb                Cairpre cluithecair           [Osraighe]
Corbmiac gelta gaeth                                                   
Fedlimthe fir urglais     O'Dwyer                       
Cathaoir mhoir                                         
 |______________________________________________________________________________________________
 |                                                                                              |
Fiachch baicedha                                                                               Rosa Failge
Bresail belaigh                                                                                Nathi
 |_________________________________                                                             |
 |                                 |                                                            |
Labhrada                          Edna niadh                                                   Eogain bruighigh
Edna gendselaigh                  Dunloing                                                     Cathaoir
 |__________________________       |                                                            |
 |                |         |      |                                                            |
Crimhthainn cais Deadaid   Felim  Oilella                                                      Mail uma
Nathi                             Corpmaic                                                     Forannain
 |__________     O'Dea     Murphy  |                                                            |
 |          |                      |                                                            |
Eoghain    Cormaic                Coirpre duib                                                 Congalaigh
Sillain                           Colman                                                       Diomusaigh
Faelain    O'Ryan                 Faolain                                                      Floinn da congal
 |                                 |                                                            |__________________                          
 |                                 |                                                            |                  |
Oenchon                           Conaill                                                      Aengusa            Cionaedha
Rudhgaile                         Brain mnuit                                                  Mugroin            Riagain
Aedha                             Murchadha                                                    Muirigen           
 |                                 |__________________________________                          |                 O'Dunn
 |                                 |                                  |                         |                 
Diermada                          Muiredaigh, aq O Muiredaigh        Faelain, aq O Faelain     Cionaedha
Cairpre                           Broin                              Ruadhrach                 Flannagain
Cinaedha                          Muiredhaigh                        Diarmada                  Concobhair
Ceallaigh                         Dunluing                           Muirigen                    
Domhnaill                         Oilella                            Mail morda                O'Connor Failge
Diermada                          Murchadha                          Finn                      O'Dempsey
 |                                 |                                   |                       MacColgan                                             
Donnchad (Maol n mbo)             Tuathail (d. 1013) aq O Tuathaill  Murchadha                 O'Hennessy
Diermada (d. 1072)                Dunluing (d. 1013)                 Mall mordha (d. 1013)
Murchadha (d. 1070)               Duinn cuan (1014)                  Brian (d. 1017) aq O Brain
aq Mac Murchadha                   |                                  |______________________________
                                   |                                  |                              | 
                                  Giolla Comghaill bacaigh (d. 1018) Donnchada na soidhe buildhe    Ceallaigh
                                  Giolla caoimhghin (d. 1059)                                       Cerbhaill
                                                                     O'Bryne                        Faelan            
MacMurrough                       O'Toole                            
Kavanagh                          O'Murray                                                          O'Faelan
Kinsella
Hendrick
Mernach
Redmond 


   Three of the surnames in the Trinity file with matching DNA appear in the charts above: O'Byrne, Murphy, Ryan. You can find a list of the Kings of Leinster in this entry on Wikipedia (Kings of Leinster)

Source Records

Leinster pedigrees - O Clery Book of Genealogies and O'Hart's "Irish Pedigrees."
The Topographical Poems - Leinster
1659 Census - Leinster
Ancient Laigin (Irish History in Maps)
The Tribes of Laigin (Irish History in Maps)
Annals of Laigin (Irish History in Maps)


   With this as a starting point Paul Burns of the Byrne Surname Project at FTDNA went on to construct a more complete modal (B9NW4) based on his project members who traced their ancestry to the Province of Leinster and matched the DNA first discovered in the Trinity database.


The Leinster Modal
ID D
Y
S
3
9
3
D
Y
S
3
9
0
D
Y
S
1
9
/
3
9
4
D
Y
S
3
9
1
D
Y
S
3
8
5
a
D
Y
S
3
8
5
b
D
Y
S
4
2
6
D
Y
S
3
8
8
D
Y
S
4
3
9
D
Y
S
3
8
9
-
1
D
Y
S
3
9
2
D
Y
S
3
8
9
-
2
D
Y
S
4
5
8
D
Y
S
4
5
9
a
D
Y
S
4
5
9
b
D
Y
S
4
5
5
D
Y
S
4
5
4
D
Y
S
4
4
7
D
Y
S
4
3
7
D
Y
S
4
4
8
D
Y
S
4
4
9
D
Y
S
4
6
4
a
D
Y
S
4
6
4
b
D
Y
S
4
6
4
c
D
Y
S
4
6
4
d
D
Y
S
4
6
0
G
A
T
A
H
4
Y
C
A
I
i
a
Y
C
A
I
i
b
D
Y
S
4
5
6
D
Y
S
6
0
7
D
Y
S
5
7
6
D
Y
S
5
7
0
C
D
Y
a
C
D
Y
b
D
Y
S
4
4
2
D
Y
S
4
3
8
R1b modal 1324141111141212121313291791011112515192915151717111119231615181736381212
Leinster modal 1324141111141212121413301791011112515183015151717111119231615181839401112
Distance from reference: Zero One Two Three+


   Results from Ysearch appear to confirm both Paul's modal and the theory that this DNA represents the ancient chieftains of the Lagin in Ireland. The most important of the samples to emerge from Ysearch are the Kavanaghs (or Cavanaghs) and Kinsellas, both said to descend from two sons of Dermot na nGall, or Dermot MacMurrough, the King of Leinster, known in Irish history as the Irish king who invited the Normans into Ireland. They too match the Leinster modal perfectly as do a large number of Murphys, another important group who branched off the stem of the MaMurrough line. We now have DNA samples from four of the surnames associated with the major chieftains and kings of the Lagin in Leinster and all match perfectly. This situation is similar to the R1b1c7 (now R1b1b2e) cluster in northwest Ireland with surname matches among the families said to descend from Nial 'of the Nine Hostages', c. 450 A.D. (Mclaughlins, Dohertys, Gallaghers, O'Boyles, O'Donnells etc., all major chieftains and Kings of Donegal.)

We now have a few Toole and Ryan samples as well that match the modal and may represent members of the O'Toole and O'Ryan branches of the Leinster chieftains.


Leinster Chieftains
ID D
Y
S
3
9
3
D
Y
S
3
9
0
D
Y
S
1
9
/
3
9
4
D
Y
S
3
9
1
D
Y
S
3
8
5
a
D
Y
S
3
8
5
b
D
Y
S
4
2
6
D
Y
S
3
8
8
D
Y
S
4
3
9
D
Y
S
3
8
9
-
1
D
Y
S
3
9
2
D
Y
S
3
8
9
-
2
D
Y
S
4
5
8
D
Y
S
4
5
9
a
D
Y
S
4
5
9
b
D
Y
S
4
5
5
D
Y
S
4
5
4
D
Y
S
4
4
7
D
Y
S
4
3
7
D
Y
S
4
4
8
D
Y
S
4
4
9
D
Y
S
4
6
4
a
D
Y
S
4
6
4
b
D
Y
S
4
6
4
c
D
Y
S
4
6
4
d
D
Y
S
4
6
0
G
A
T
A
H
4
Y
C
A
I
i
a
Y
C
A
I
i
b
D
Y
S
4
5
6
D
Y
S
6
0
7
D
Y
S
5
7
6
D
Y
S
5
7
0
C
D
Y
a
C
D
Y
b
D
Y
S
4
4
2
D
Y
S
4
3
8
Modal 1324141111141212121413301791011112515183015151717111119231615181839401112
Kavanagh  unk. 1324141111141212111413301791011112515183215151616111119231615181938411112
Kavanagh  unk. 1324141111141212111413301791011112515183015151616111119231615181939401112
Kavanagh  Wexford 1324141111141212111413301791011112515183015151617111119231615181939401112
Kavanagh  unk. 1324141111141212111413301791011112515183015151616111119231615171939401112
Kavanagh  unk. 1324141111141212111413301591011112515182915151616111119231615181939401112
Kavanagh  unk. 1324141111141212121313291791011112615183015161617111119231615181838401112
Cavanaugh  unk. 1324141111141212121413301791011112515183015151616111119231614191939401112
Kavanagh  unk. 132414111214121211141330                         
Kinsella Kildare 1324141111131212111413301791011112515183014151616111119231615181839391112
Kinsella unk. 132414111114121211141330                         
Toole U.S. 1324141111141212111413301691011112515183015151616111119231615182038401112
Toole U.S. 1324141111141212111413301691011112515183015151616            
Toole U.S. 132414111113121211141330                         
Toole U.S. 132414111114121211141330                         
Toole U.S. 132414111114121211141330                         
Toole U.S. 132414111114121211141330                         
Towle U.S. 1324141111141212111412301791011112515193015151717121219231515181736391112
Ryan Ireland 13241411111412121113132917  111125 18301515161611111923       12
Ryan Ireland 1324 11111412121113132917  111125 18301515161611111923       12
Murphy Ireland 132414111114121212141330169911112515183015151717101119231615191637381112
Murphy U.S. 132414111114121212141330169911112515183015171717111119231615181638401112
Murphy U.S. 132414111114121212141330169911112515183015171717111119231615181638401112
Murphy Cork 132414111114121212141330169911112515183014151717101119231615181639401112
Murphy Ireland 142414111114121212141330169911112515183015151517            
Murphy Kerry 132414111114121211141330179911112515183015151717          11 
Murphy Dublin 1324141111141212121413301791011112515183015151616          11 
Murphy Ireland 1324141111141212121413301791011112515183115151717          11 
Murphy Ireland 13241411111412121214133017911111125151831               
Burns Ireland 1324141111141212121413301791011112515183015151717111119231515181738391112
Byrne Carlow 1324141111141212121413301791011112515183015151717111119231515201839401112
Byrne Wexford 1324141111141212121413301691011112515183015151517111119231515191838391112
Burns Kildare 1324141111141212121413301791011112615183015151717111119231615181839411111
Byrne Clonmore 1324141111141212121413301791011112515183015151717111119231615181841411112
Byrne Wicklow 1324141111141212121413301791011112515183015151717111119191615181939401112
Byrne Wicklow 1324141111141212121413301791011112515183115151717111119191615181939401112
Burns Scotland 1324141111141212121413311791011112515183015151718111119231615191840411112
Byrne Ireland 1324141111141212111413301791011112515183015151617111119231615181840421112
Burns Wicklow 1324141111141212121313291791111112515183015151517111119241615181838401112
Whalen Ireland 13241411111412121314133016910111125151830151517171111        11
Whalen Limerick 13241310111412121214133017910111125151831151517171111192316151818404211
Dempsey Antrim 132414111114121212141330179911112415183015151717           
Dempsey Ireland 13241411111412121214133017991111241518301515171711111923161518193840111211
O'Connor Kerry 13241411111412121114133017910111125151830151517171111        11




The Offaly Clans


   In addition to these families, all part of the ruling Lagin dynasty in Leinster, the Irish pedigrees also link the families of several chieftains and kings of Offaly (formerly King's County) to the same stock as the Lagin. The leading chieftains of Offaly were said to descend from Cathaoir Mor, the ancestor of the MacMurroughs, through his son Rosa failge, and include O'Connor Faley, O'Dunn, O'Dempsy, O'Hennessy, O'Dooley and others. There is one DNA sample in Ysearch for a Dempsey that matches the modal (6HKTU) at 25 markers; one O'Connor sample from the Sorenson database matches the modal but the testee gives an origin in Co. Kerry which confuses the issue since there was another O'Connor sept native to Co. Kerry (O'Connor Ciarraighe or Kerry). There are two Dooley samples (4CJBP,6SEGX) on Ysearch that are partial matches and so far no Dunns have matched the modal. O'Rahilly (Early Irish History and Mythology) accepted the Offaly clans as a genuine offshoot of the Lagin but so far little proof has surfaced.


The Osraighe (Ossory)


   Lastly the Irish pedigrees also classify the Osraighe in Ireland as Lagin (now Ossory, a buffer state between Leinster and Munster), the leading chieftains of which were the Fitzpatricks and O'Brennans. O'Rahilly believed the Osraighe stem was falsely attached to the line of the Lagin by the Irish scribes. So far there is no DNA evidence to prove or disprove the connection.


Who Were the Lagin?


   O'Rahilly (Early Irish History and Mythology) theorized that the Lagin came to Ireland somtime after 50 B.C. from Armorica in Gaul.

   Here are few interesting passages from O'Rahilly:

Chapter VI. The Laginian Invasion

Lagin. Domnain. Galioin.

"The Lagin, who have left their name on the province of Leinster, preserved the tradition that Lagin, Domnainn and Galioin were three names for the one people. We may interpret the tradition " as meaning that these were the names of closely related tribes."

   He then gives a few examples of how the names were interchangeable in early Irish records and mythology.

   To jump ahead in the text a bit, O'Rahilly concludes that the Lagin came to Ireland from Gaul and most likely from Little Brittany or Armorica, an area previously settled by Britons from southwest England.

   Here's where it gets a little interesting though.

"The Domnain of ireland were, it is hardly open to doubt, a branch of the Dumnonii of Devon and Cornwall. There were also Dumnonii in Scotland, where their territory, as we infer from Ptolemy, lay around Dumbarton and extended southwards into Renfrew, Lanark and Ayr. If, as is quite probable, these are another branch of the same tribe, thy must have reached Scotland by sea; and in that case it is perhaps more likely that they set out from the coast of Leinster than from South-West Britain. Possibly we may see a dim memory of this Scottish settlement in the raids on North Britain attributed to Labraid, ancestor of the Lagin."

"In early historical times the Lagin are the dominant power in that part of Leinster which lies south of the mouth of the Liffey; ....In the Ireland described by Ptolemy, on the other hand, there is not a trace of the Lagin or their kin, and those peoples whom we find occupying a subordinate position early in the historical period are in unchallgend occupation of this part of the country, eg, the Cauleni (Dal Mes Corb), the Manapi (Monaig) and the Brigantes (Ui Bairche)."

   Also

"The question remains: is there any evidence that the Laginian invaders had arrived in Ireland at the time when Ptolemy's account was originally compiled? There is certainly no evidence for them in Connacht, where, for instance, the Domnoni (who have left their name on Irish Domnann, Dun Domnann, Mag Domnann, Tulcha Domnann) are not mentioned. It remains to see whether any Laginian tribes can be traced in the south-east of Ireland, where the Laginian invasion most permanently left its mark."


   Other writers also have tackled the subject of the Lagin and Dumnonii of southwest England.

Celtic Scotland, the Picts, The Scots
& the Welsh of Southern Scotland.
H.M. Chadwick

"Apart from the Coritani (Qritani) the chief peoples of southern Britain whose territories had not been included in the area of Iron Age A were the Cornovii and the Dumnonii. In Roman times, according to Ptolemy, the former occupied the north-west Midlands. A considerable part of Wales may also have been included in their territories. Their capital was Wroxeter (Vriconium), near Shrewsbury. The Dumnonii occupied Cornwall, Devon (which preserves their name) and perhaps part of Somerset. Their capital seems to have been Exeter (Isca). In Ptolemy's map both of these peoples appear in Scotland - the Cornovii in the extreme north, Sutherland and Caithness, the Dumnonii apparently between Ayrshire and Stirlingshire. Again, from the fifth or sixth century onwards the Cornovii (Cernyw, etc.) appear also in Cornwall, which still preserves their name. If they were there in Roman times, they must have been subject to the Dumnonii. Their name is probably to be traced also in Curocornovium, an alternative name for Corinium (Cirencester), and in a number of placenames in various parts of Wales. Lastly, the name Dumnonii is usually connected with the Domnain of Ireland. In our earliest records, this name is applied to kings of Leinster; and the name Inber Domnain was formerly applied to Malahide Bay (Co. Dublin). But in later times the Domnainn, also called Fir Domnann, were known only in the west of Connacht."

footnote: Apart from Ptolemy, we may refer to Solinus, cap. 22: "The island of Silura (apparently Scilly) is separated by a stormy strait from the coast which is occupied by the Dumnonii, a British people."

"In Ptolemy's map four peoples are located in the south of Scotland. The points of the compass are erroneously stated (cf. p. 72); but it is clear that he means to place the Noouantai in Galloway and perhaps Dumfries, and the Uotadinoi (written Otalinoi?) on the east side, between the Forth and the Tyne. The Selgouai lie between these two peoples, and the Dumnonioi (miswritten Damnioi, Damnonioi) north of the Selgouai, extending apparently from Ayshire into Perthshire. All these peoples are usually assumed to be British. But only one of them survived in later times - the Votadini, known as Guotodin, Gododdin, in early Welsh poetry. The Dumnonioi were presumably of the same stock as their namesakes in Devon and Cornwall (cf. Chapter v above). The latter were certainly British in later times; so it is inferred that the northern Dumnonioi were likewise British.But, as we have seen, another branch of the same stock is found in Ireland - the Domnainn or Fir Domnann of Leinster - and it is apparently nowhere suggested that they spoke any language but Irish."

   While most writers on the subject accept O'Rahilly's theories of the origin of the Lagin in Ireland many doubt that the Dumnonii of SW England and the Dumnonii of lowland Scotland were the same tribe.

   William Skene, the Scottish antiquarian, also mentioned the Domnonii of Scotland.

"...the great nation of the Domnonii lay north of the Selgovae and Novantae, separated from them by the chain of hills which divides the northern rivers from the waters which flow into the Solway, extending as far north as the Tay. South of the Forth of Clyde they possessed the modern counties of Ayr, Lanark, and Renfrew, and, north of these estuaries, the counties of Dumbaton and Stirling and the distrcits of Menteith, Stratherne, and Fothreve, or the western half of the peninsula of fife. They thus lay in the centre of Scotland, and were the novae gentes whose territory Agricola ravaged."

   Many writers connect the Dumnonii of Scotland to the northern British kingdom of Strathclyde.

"Strathclyde (Gaelic: Srath Chluaidh) (lit. "Valley of the Clyde"),
originally Brythonic Ystrad Clud. It is also known as Alt Clut, the
Brythonic name for Dumbarton Rock, the medieval capital of the region,
which was one of the kingdoms of the Brythons in southern Scotland
throughout the post-Roman period (also known as the Dark Ages), and
the Middle Ages. It may have had its origins in the Damnonii of Ptolemy's Geographia.

Place-name and archaeological evidence points to some settlement by Norse
or Norse-Gaels in the Viking Age, although to a lesser degree than in
neighbouring Galloway. A small number of Anglian place-names show some limited
settlement by incomers from Northumbria prior to the Norse settlement. Due
to the series of language changes in the area, it is not possible to say
whether any Goidelic settlement took place before Gaelic was introduced
in the High Middle Ages.

After the sack of Dumbarton Rock by a Viking army from Dublin in 870, the name
Strathclyde comes into use, perhaps reflecting a move of the centre of the kingdom
to Govan. In the same period, it was also referred to as Cumbria, and its inhabitants
as Cumbrians. During the High Middle Ages, the area was conquered by the kingdom of
Alba, becoming part of the new kingdom of Scotland. It remained a distinctive area
into the 12th century."

   See Wikipedia "Kingdom of Stathclyde"

   Many historians also see evidence of "Leinstermen" in Wales.

   "In the fourth and fifth centuries, a large Irish colony, originating from southeast Ireland, was established in south-west Wales (Pembrokeshire, Carmarthenshire, and Cardiganshire (now Dyfed). The rulers were of the Deisi, the ruling class spoke Irish, and the kingdom was apparently bilingual in the fifth century. There was another, less important, Irish colony in north Wales in Anglesea, Carvarvonshire, and Denbighshire. Here some of the colonists (for we do not know whether others were involved) left their name on the Lleyn peninsula, which derives it name from Laigin, the ruling dynasty of Leinster in the Early Christian period. their name also survives in that of a village on Nevin Bay, Porth Dinllaen, 'the harbour of the fort of the Leinstermen.' A third colony was established in south-west Britain, in the Cornish peninsula, by colonists called Ui Liathain. These were probably Erainn and were settled in historic times in the east of Co. Cork. The learned scholar-bishop and king of Cashel, Cormac (d. 908), preserves in his Glossary an account of Irish colonization in western Britain: "The power of the Irish over the Britons was great, and they had divided Britain between them into estates; ...... and the Irish lived as much east of the sea as they did in Ireland, and their dwellings and royal fortresses were made there. Hence is Dind Tradui, ..... that is, the triple rampart of Crimthann, king of Ireland and Britain as far as the English Channel. From this division originated the fort of the sons of Liathain in the land of the Britons of Cornwall......And they were in that control for a long time, even after the coming of St. Patrick to Ireland." Cormac's source is not known, but his account is broadly confirmed elsewhere. As Professor jackson says, "it seems a certain fact that, at some time in the late Roman period, Irish colonies from East Munster settled in South Wales, Cornwall and Devon, and from one of them sprang a line of kings of south-west Wales who were still ruling there in the tenth century." Less is known of the colony in North Wales; there is no information in Irish sources, but Nennius records how Cunedda and his eight sons drove the Irish out of north Wales in what may have been the middle of the fifth century, though there may have been further struggles before the Irish were finally conquered in this area."

   Oxford Illustrated History of Ireland



The DYS 464X test (ccgg)



   The Leinster clans of Ireland aren't the only surnames that match the Leinster modal. Another large group that match are the Beattys of lowland Scotland, said to be one of the border reiver clans. According to the Surname Profiler the Beatty surname is heaviest in the far northern English county of Northumbria along the Scottish border but common throughout the lowlands with a secondary concentration in Argyllshire.

   Both the Beattys and the Byrnes have underdone extensive DYS 464X tests. For more information on the test see John McEwan's 464X page. For a technical explanation of ReCLOH see Thomas Krahn's article at DNA Fingerprint.

   John McEwan describes the ccgg group in a post to the GEN-DNA list in July 2007

"We have had a number of new DYS464x results and I have now created a
separate "puesdo subclade" called R1b1c/ccgg7+ This is for people in
R1bSTR7 haplotype cluster who have tested and been found to have ccgg at
DYS464. This group has other names such as the Leinster cluster,
Burns/Beattie cluster or Irish sea cluster. This group has up to a GD of
9 on 37 markers for those tested and this means it is *OLD*. By the time
it is fully exemplified I think we will be talking about Neolithic (pre
roman) migrations. My guess it went from Northern England into Ireland,
perhaps in the Celtic era, but we need enough examples to be able to see
if the English examples are more diverse than the Irish. I again
strongly recommend anybody close to this group to test for DYS464x and
DYF399x. If we think about it this group accounts for ~5% of Irish
R1b1c, ~4% of English R1b1c and ~3% of Scots R1b1c so it may be the
biggest R1b1c group defined recently even if we are limited to a
pseudo-SNP for its characterisation. It has an interesting story to
tell."

John McEwan's R1bSTR clusters
John McEwan's R1bSTR7 cluster (.pdf file)


Beattys and Byrnes
ID D
Y
S
3
9
3
D
Y
S
3
9
0
D
Y
S
1
9
/
3
9
4
D
Y
S
3
9
1
D
Y
S
3
8
5
a
D
Y
S
3
8
5
b
D
Y
S
4
2
6
D
Y
S
3
8
8
D
Y
S
4
3
9
D
Y
S
3
8
9
-
1
D
Y
S
3
9
2
D
Y
S
3
8
9
-
2
D
Y
S
4
5
8
D
Y
S
4
5
9
a
D
Y
S
4
5
9
b
D
Y
S
4
5
5
D
Y
S
4
5
4
D
Y
S
4
4
7
D
Y
S
4
3
7
D
Y
S
4
4
8
D
Y
S
4
4
9
D
Y
S
4
6
4
a
D
Y
S
4
6
4
b
D
Y
S
4
6
4
c
D
Y
S
4
6
4
d
D
Y
S
4
6
0
G
A
T
A
H
4
Y
C
A
I
i
a
Y
C
A
I
i
b
D
Y
S
4
5
6
D
Y
S
6
0
7
D
Y
S
5
7
6
D
Y
S
5
7
0
C
D
Y
a
C
D
Y
b
D
Y
S
4
4
2
D
Y
S
4
3
8
R1b modal 1324141111141212121313291791011112515192915151717111119231615181736381212
63PFZ Burns 1324141111141212121413301791011112515183015151717111119231515181738391112
8AMP4 Byrne 1324141111141212121413301791011112515183015151717111119231515201839401112
BHJ39 Byrne 1324141111141212121413301691011112515183015151517111119231515191838391112
HQJA2 Burns 1324141111141212121413301791011112615183015151717111119231615181839411111
RUQ9S Byrne 1324141111141212121413301791011112515183015151717111119231615181841411112
UPREK Byrne 1324141111141212121413301791011112515183015151717111119191615181939401112
5AP85 Byrne 1324141111141212121413301791011112515183115151717111119191615181939401112
6ZXD2 Burns 1324141111141212121413311791011112515183015151718111119231615191840411112
ZCAUV Byrne 1324141111141212111413301791011112515183015151617111119231615181840421112
SFWJ7 Beaty 1324141111141212121413301791011112515183015151717111119231515181738391112
8PGWW Baity 132414111114121212141330179911112515183015151717111119231615191738401112
YZU3V Beaty 1324141111141212121413301791011112515183015151717111119231515181739391112
57U9T Beattey 1324141111141212121413301791011112515182915151617111119231615181738391112
7GX6B Beaty 1324141111141212121413301791011112515182915151717111119231615181738391112
8PDFF Beatty 1324141111141212121413301791011112515182915151717111119231615181738391112
97XKS Beattie 1324141111141212121413301791011112515182915151717111119231616181739391112
7777G Beaty 132414111114121212141330179911112515182915151515111119231615191738381112
Distance from reference: Zero One Two Three+


   So far most of the people who have tested positive for ccgg in the 464X test match the Leinster modal STRS, including the Beattys and the Byrnes of Leinster. One Byrne in the Byrne Surname Project does match the Leinster modal STRS but did not test ccgg. Presumably his DNA underwent another more recent ReCLOH event which changed the pattern yet again. Another Byrne sample that is an exellent match to the modal tested cccg. Other samples with STR patterns that do no match the Leinster modal have tested ccgg. These men probably represent separate ccgg events. unrelated to the Beatty/Byrnes cluster.

   Six of the Byrnes who match the Leinster modal have taken the S series of tests at FTDNA and are negative (M269+) which makes them R1b1c or R1b1b2 in the new nomenclature. There are at least a few DNA samples in the NULL 439 and S26 databases that have part of the Leinster modal (14-13-30). One example is a Bayly from England (gg976 on Ysearch) who tested positive for S21. If there's any deduction to be drawn from this it is probably that not everyone who has DYS 389i - 389ii (14-13-30) matches the Leinster cluster. The Baly sample has the following:

14-13-30;. DYS 448, 449 = 18-29; DYS 442 = 12; CDYb = 40 (high). DYS 464 = 15-15-16-17; DYS 492 = 13.

   According to DNA experts 492 = 13 is a indicator of S21 SNP status. So far not a single member of the Leinster modal group with extended marker tests (there are several in the ccgg group) has 492 = 13. And so far no S21 or NULL 439 samples have DYS 442 = 11.


464x ccgg Test Results
ID D
Y
S
3
9
3
D
Y
S
3
9
0
D
Y
S
1
9
/
3
9
4
D
Y
S
3
9
1
D
Y
S
3
8
5
a
D
Y
S
3
8
5
b
D
Y
S
4
2
6
D
Y
S
3
8
8
D
Y
S
4
3
9
D
Y
S
3
8
9
-
1
D
Y
S
3
9
2
D
Y
S
3
8
9
-
2
D
Y
S
4
5
8
D
Y
S
4
5
9
a
D
Y
S
4
5
9
b
D
Y
S
4
5
5
D
Y
S
4
5
4
D
Y
S
4
4
7
D
Y
S
4
3
7
D
Y
S
4
4
8
D
Y
S
4
4
9
D
Y
S
4
6
4
a
D
Y
S
4
6
4
b
D
Y
S
4
6
4
c
D
Y
S
4
6
4
d
D
Y
S
4
6
0
G
A
T
A
H
4
Y
C
A
I
i
a
Y
C
A
I
i
b
D
Y
S
4
5
6
D
Y
S
6
0
7
D
Y
S
5
7
6
D
Y
S
5
7
0
C
D
Y
a
C
D
Y
b
D
Y
S
4
4
2
D
Y
S
4
3
8
R1b modal 1324141111141212121313291791011112515192915151717111119231615181736381212
T78VB Beatty 1324141111141212121413301791011112515182915151717111119231615181739391112
V929P Beatty 1324141111141212121413311691011112515172915151717111119231615181737381112
CD3XA Beaty 1324141111141212121413301791011112515182915161717            
EZRDK Beaty 1324141111141212121513311791011112515182915161717111119231615181738391112
S7EM6 McHale 1324141111141212121413301791011112515183015151717101119231715181839401112
63PFZ Burns 1324141111141212121413301791011112515183015151717111119231515181738391112
RE7TY Byrne 132414111114121211141331179911112515182915151717111119231615181840431112
D4MF8 BYRNE 1324141110141212121413301791011112515183015151717111219231615191839401112
6ZXD2 BURNS 1324141111141212121413311791011112515183015151718111119231615191840411112
RUQ9S BYRNE 1324141111141212121413301791011112515183015151717111119231615181841411112
NFREP BYRNES  1324141011141212121413301791011112515183015151717111119231615201839411112
HQJA2 BURNS  1324141111141212121413301791011112615183015151717111119231615181839411111
CXW9Y McLaughlin 1324141111141212121413301791011112515182915151717111119231615191737391112
FDUQN McCloughan 1324141111141212111413301891011112515183015151718111119231615181738401112
ZJRCZ McCloughan 1324141111141212121413301791011112515183015151718111119231615181738391112
x4juh Foley 1324141111141212121413301791011112515183015161717101119221615171640411111
8YRRF Quigley 1324141111141212121313301791011112515183015151717111119231615181840401112
NQJ6J Ferguson 1324141111141212121413301791011112515183015151717111119231515181840401112
ZW4EC Barlow 12241411111412121213132917910111124141827151515171111192316     1212
Distance from reference: Zero One Two Three+


Ysearch ID Surname DYS 464X DYF399
       
T78VB Beatty 15c 15c 17g 17g  
V929P Beatty 15c 15c 17g 17g  
CD3XA Beaty 15c 16c 17g 17g  
EZRDK Beaty 15c 16c 17g 17g 21.0 22.0 27.1
63PFZ Burns 15c 15c 17g 17g 20t 26c 26.1t
RE7TY Byrne 15c 15c 17g 17g 21t 25c 25.1t
D4MF8 Byrne 15c 15c 17g 17g 21t 27c 27.1t
6ZXD2 Burns 15c 15c 17g 18g 20 21t 25c 27.1t
NFREP Byrnes 15c 15c 17g 17g 20 21t 25c 25.1t
HQJA2 Burns 15c 15c 17g 17g 20 21t 25c 27.1t
RUQ9S Byrne 15c 15c 17g 17g  
X4JUH Foley 15c 16c 17g 16g 21t 26 1t-27c
S7EM6 McHale 15c 15c 17g 17g 2vt 26c 28.1t
FDUQN McCloughan 15c-15c-17g-18g  
ZJRCZ McCloughan 15c-15c-17g-18g  
CXW9Y McLaughlin 15c-15c-17g-17g 21t-23c-28.1t
8YRRF Quigley 15c-15c-17g-17g 19t 24c,25,1t
NQJ6J Ferguson 15c-15c-17g-17g 19t 24c,25,1t
 
The following sample is the only Byrne from Leinster who did not test ccgg. The STR markers for this test are listed in the Beatty-Byrnes table above. The markers are a perfect match for the Leinster modal.
 
ZCAUV Byrne 15c 15g 16g 17g  
       
The following sample tested cccg (The STRS matched the modal)..
 
K7TAW Quilliam (FitzWilliam) 15c-15c-17c-17g  


   The two McCloughans in the test have a family tradition of being Scots-Irish. The surname is nearly unique to Co. Down in northern Ireland in the Griffith's Valuations. The McLaughlin in the test has ancestors from the Letterkenny area in Donegal but may be Scots-Irish as well. For further reference see McLaughlin of Scotland on this web site.

Click here to join Beatty_Byrnes_DNA
Click to join Beatty_Byrnes_DNA_Group

   There are other surnames in public DNA databases with origins in Leinster or bordering areas in Munster that also match the Leinster modal.

JXYQU Doyle
MF9AP Dunphy
9DC6P Fortune
XR7UX Gleason
SMGF O'Connor
6NVVN Toole
TDYS8 Towle
6FBUN Tynan
SMGF Whalen

   A few surnames might be Norman in origin:

ms8mx Bennet
PXDEB D'Arcy
3F8HP Dillin
YYU5A Dillin
DRJZP Lacey
SMGF Pendergrass
M8PSX Jordan

   One Surname means literally "the Welshman."

JXPA2 Wallace
V69TR Wallace

MacLysaght, Surnames of Scotland, Wallace,
DNA Norman, le Waleis, 'the Welshman', the name
a Scottish clan

   There are also a lot of very English appearing surnames in public databases which match part or all of the Leinster modal.

   DNA experts are divided on the usefullness of the 464X test for genealogical purposes. John McEwan has said he thought the 464X results function as a pseudo SNP and could be useful in tracking lineages through DNA. Thomas Krahn is on record as stating the condition is too volatile to use for genealogy.

   We would however encourage anyone whose STRS match the Leinster modal to order the 464X test at FamilyTree DNA. As far as DNA tests go it's reasonably inexpensive ($17) and may prove helpful in further defining the Leinster modal cluster. There is a fair amount of DNA that matches part but not all of the modal. For example there are DNA samples that have DYS 389i to 389ii = 14-13-30 but miss at the other parts of the modal, especially at DYS 442 = 11. Without more 464X ccgg tests we have no way of knowing if this DNA truly matches the Leinster modal or not. Some volatility is to be expected in test results (see Thomas Krahn's remarks above. But if the Byrnes and Beattys are an example we may well discover that the overwhelming majority of those who match the Leinter modal STRS at least in part do belong to the cluster.

   For completeness' sake we should mention that the same basic modal was discovered independently by Paul Burns of the Byrnes Surname Project and the Beatty surname project. Working with the latter Peter Dunphy called it the "Irish Sea modal," not to be confused with various other North Sea modals and Irish Sea modals proposed by other web sites.


Links to sites relevant to Leinster modal DNA.

DNA

Byrne DNA Project
Beatty DNA Project
McHale Y-DNA Project
Cavanaugh DNA Project
Toole (O'Toole) DNA Project

Clan Web Sites

The Royal House of Leinster
Clann Chaomhanach (Cavanagh)
The Byrne Clan
The Kinsella Homepage



Other Surnames in Ysearch matching the Leinster Modal perfectly.

DYS 389i = 14; DYS 392 = 13; DYS 389ii = 30; DYS 448 = 18; DYS 442 = 11

E5WGN Agee U.S.
6Y9G8 Asbell unknown
7V4G5 Armstrong England
UAWPH Babie Ranville-Breuillaud, France
7WA2Y Barker unknown
7QF2K Barker Shropshire, England
EFZVH Barker unknown
CRNA3 Barry Limerick, Ireland
ms8mx Bennet Laois, Ireland
B2XV7 Berry unknown
CG34V Cameron Inverness-shire, Scotland
GKS2D Carmack unknown
PAMN9 Carmack unknown
2VVX9 Carter unknown
MK94T Clarke Carlow
YJA66 Cotton Derbyshire, England 
P9SVH Craig unknown
6Z57A Cullen Wicklow, Ireland
PXDEB D'Arcy Wicklow
8DYP8 Davidson Scotland
CJ4JD de Bohun unknown
3F8HP Dillin unknown
YYU5A Dillin ireland
XTVR3 Downing U.S.
JXYQU Doyle U.S.
VWWP8 Duncan unknown
5242N Edge unknown
8W3CT Elkins England
4778W Elliott unknown
72BSN Elliott U.S.
NQJ6J Ferguson Scotland
PQ5Q5 Ferguson Glasgow, Scotland 
x4juh Foley Cork, Ireland
9DC6P Fortune Newry, Ireland
K9FVF Gardner unknown
BF3JQ Gatlin unknown
UA5DY Geary Limerick, Ireland
2EHJX Glenn Ireland
SVB3A Green England
HZPVF Hamilton U.S.
573T7I Ireland Castlefinn Co. Donegal, Ireland 
DRJZP Lacey Ireland
74YE2 Lopez Spain
7E5D3 McCaine Farnham, Northern Ireland 
Y2E66 McKenzie Ross-shire
8T6KZ McDonald Scotland
BDU8V McHale Ireland
YZG4V McHale Mayo, ireland
MAC4P McInvale Irland
SWX5J Nelson unknown
M8B26 Oden unknown
DVQSJ O'Neill unknown
DDTKT Owings U.S.
BNXND Owen U.S.
TENCV Ray unknown
NUFPT Rhea Scotland
9B9ER Riley unknown
SMGF Robertson Scotland
PHDZ6 Robinson U.S.
QQJC5 Spence unknown
TDYS8 Towle Lincolnshire, England 
6FBUN Tynan Kilkenny, Ireland 
JXPA2 Wallace Ireland
PUBF4 Wethington England
SMGF Whalen Ireland
ZJBZJ Winder U.S.
TAMJS Winders unknown
TWZVB Young Cork, Ireland